Fruit

In botany, a fruit is a part of a flowering plant that derives from specific tissues of the flower, one or more overies, and in some cases accessory tissues. Fruits are the means by which these plants disseminate seeds. Many of them that bear edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition, respectively; in fact, humans and many animals have become dependent on fruits as a source of food. Fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world’s agricultural output, and some (such as the apple and the promegranate) have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings.

In common language usage, “fruit” normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour and edible in the raw state, such as apples, oranges, grapes, strawberrues, bananas, and lemons. On the other hand, the botanical sense of “fruit” includes many structures that are not commonly called “fruits”, such as been pods, corn kernels, wheat grains, and tomatoes .

The section of a fungus that produces spores  is also called a fruiting body.

Jackfruit

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The jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), also known as jack tree, jakfruit, or sometimes simply jack or jak) is a species of tree  in the Artocarpus  genus of the mulberry family ( Moraceae). It is native to parts of South and Southeast Asia, and is believed to have originated in the southwestern rain forests of India , in present-day Kerala , in Tamil Nadu  (in Panruti ), coastal Karnataka and Maharashtra . The jackfruit tree is well suited to tropical lowlands , and its fruit is the largest tree-borne fruit, reaching as much as 80 pounds (36 kg) in weight, 36 inches (90 cm) in length, and 20 inches (50 cm) in diameter.

The jackfruit tree is a widely cultivated and popular food item in tropical regions of India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia,  and the   Philippines . Jackfruit is also found across Africa  (e.g., in Cameroon, Uganda, Tanzania, Madagascar , and Mauritius ), as well as throughout Brazil, western central Mexico and in Caribbean nations such as Jamaica. Jackfruit is the national fruit  of Bangladesh.

Mango

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The mango is a juicy stone fruit  belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees, cultivated mostly for edible fruit. The majority of these species are found in nature as wild mangoes. They all belong to the flowering plant  family Anacardiaceae. The mango is native  to South and Southeast Asia , from where it has been distributed worldwide to become one of the most cultivated fruits  in the tropics. The highest concentration of Mangifera genus is in India .

While other Mangifera species (e.g.horse mango , M. foetida) are also grown on a more localized basis, Mangifera indica —the “common mango” or “Indian mango”—is the only mango tree commonly cultivated in many tropical and subtropical regions. It originated in Indian subcontinent (present day India and Pakistan) and Burma.

It is the national fruit of India, Pakistan,  and the Philippines, and the national tree  of Bangladesh. In several cultures, its fruit and leaves are ritually used as floral decorations at weddings, public celebrations, and religious ceremonies.

Banana

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A banana is an edible fruit , botanically a berry,  produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants  in the genus Musa . (In some countries, bananas used for cooking may be called plantains .) The fruit is variable in size, color and firmness, but is usually elongated and curved, with soft flesh rich in starch  covered with a rind which may be green, yellow, red, purple, or brown when ripe. The fruits grow in clusters hanging from the top of the plant. Almost all modern edible parthenocarpic (seedless) bananas come from two wild species – Musa acuminata  and Musa balbisiana . The scientific names  of most cultivated bananas are Musa acuminata, Musa balbisiana, and Musa × paradisiaca for the hybrid Musa acuminata × M. balbisiana, depending on their genomic constitution. The old scientific nameMusa sapientum is no longer used.

Musa species are native to tropical Indomalaya  and Australia , and are likely to have been first domesticated in Papua New Guinea. They are grown in at least 107 countries, primarily for their fruit, and to a lesser extent to make fiber, banana wine and banana beer  and as ornamental plants .

Worldwide, there is no sharp distinction between “bananas” and “plantains”. Especially in the Americas and Europe, “banana” usually refers to soft, sweet, dessert bananas, particularly those of the Cavendish group , which are the main exports from banana-growing countries. By contrast, Musa cultivars  with firmer, starchier fruit are called “plantains”. In other regions, such as Southeast Asia , many more kinds of banana are grown and eaten, so the simple two-fold distinction is not useful and is not made in local languages.

The term “banana” is also used as the common name for the plants which produce the fruit. This can extend to other members of the genus Musa like the scarlet banana  (Musa coccinea), pink banana  (Musa velutina) and the Fe’i bananas .  It can also refer to members of the genus Enaete , like the snow banana  (Ensete glaucum) and the economically important false banana  (Ensete ventricosum). Both genera are classified under the banana family, Musaceae.

Guava

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Guavas (singular guava,/gwa:ve/ ) are common tropical fruits cultivated and enjoyed in many tropical and subtropical regions. Psidium guajava (common guava, lemon guava) is a small tree in the Myrtle family (Myrtaceae), native to Mexico, Central, America and northern South America. Although related species may also be called guavas, they actually belong to other genera, such as the “strawberry guava”Acca sellowiana.

Jujube

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Jujubes are a very interesting fruit with an even more interesting history. From the Rhamnaceae or Buckthorn botanical family, they’ve been cultivated in China for more than 4,000 years. There are at least 400 jujube varieties, successfully developed for their distinctive characteristics – principally varieties best for eating fresh and others for drying to attain a chewy, date-like consistency. While jujube trees are extremely hardy and can flourish in even extreme temperatures with as little as eight inches of rainfall a year, they prefer sunny over shady areas.

Sometimes called red dates, Chinese dates, Korean dates, or Indian dates, jujubes come from deciduous and relatively small trees. Jujube trees grow at around 40 feet with shiny green leaves, modest-looking blossoms, and grape-to-strawberry-sized fruits containing a single large seed in the center. This makes them drupes.

Jujubes are red inside and out, with a crispy texture, edible skin, and a sweet-tart, apple-like flavor. When ripe, they can be stored at room temperature for about a week.

Jujubes weren’t much of a hit when introduced in the States in the late 1800s because they tried propagating a variety meant for drying. Not until the 1990s was the first truly tasty jujube variety imported into the U.S. by a private individual, and two more in 2007.

The best fresh jujube varieties to look for include Sugar Cane, Li, Sherwood, Chico, and Honey Jar (the latter reportedly the smallest and juiciest). The best drying varieties are Lang and Shanxi Li.
Dried jujube varieties can be used to substitute dates or apples in recipes. Just peel the fruit and remove the single seed inside. Jujubes can also be pickled whole or used to make tea.

Jambul

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Jambul or Jamun or Jamblang (Syzgium cumini), Nava Pazham (Tamil) is an evergreen tropical tree  in the flowering plant  family Myrtaceae, native to India  and Indonesia . It is also grown in other areas of southern Asia including Myanmar  and Afghanistan . The tree was also introduced to Florida, USA in 1911  by the USDA , and is also now commonly planted in Suriname . In Brazil , where it was introduced from India during Portuguese colonisation, it has spread out in the wild in some places, as many native birds such as thrushes, tanagers  and the Great Kiskadee want their fruits. The various names for this fruit are (in Java ) plum, jambul, jamun, jaman, black plum, faux pistachier, Indian blackberry, jambol, doowet, jambolan and jambolão. Scientific synonyms include Syzygium jambolanum, Eugenia cumini and Eugenia jambolana.

A fairly fast growing species, it can grow as high as 30 metres, and can live more than 100  years. Its dense foliage  provides shade and is grown just for its ornamental value. The wood is strong and water resistant . Because of this it is used in railway sleepers and to install motors in wells . It is sometimes used to make cheap furniture  and village dwellings though it is relatively hard to work on.

The Jamun tree starts flowering in March-April. The fragrant flowers  of Jamun are small, nearly 5 millimetres in diameter . This is followed by the fruit  which appears in May-June and resembles a large berry . The berry is oblong  and oviod . It is green when just appearing, pink when as it matures, and shining crimson  black when fully ripe . Another variety comes in white and some people say that it can be used as a medicine. Jamun fruit is a mixture of sweet, slightly sub acid spicy flavour that stands out even after eaten since it turns the tongue into purple  color. The fruit is universally accepted to be very good for medicinal purposes, especially diabetics . The seed is also used in various alternative healing systems like Ayurveda, Unani and Chinese medicine  for digestive ailments. The leaves and bark are used for controlling blood pressure and gingivitis . Wine and vinegar  are also made from the fruit.

Pineapple

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The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries, and the most economically significant plant in the Bromeliaceae  family. Pineapples may be cultivated from a crown cutting of the fruit, possibly flowering in 20–24 months and fruiting in the following six months. Pineapple does not ripen significantly post-harvest.

Pineapples are consumed fresh, cooked, juiced, and preserved, and are found in a wide array of cuisines. In addition to consumption, the pineapple leaves are used to produce the textile fiber pina  in the Philippines, commonly used as the material for the men’s Barong Tagalog and women’s Baro’t saya formal wear in the country. The fiber is also used as a component for wallpaper and other furnishings.

Pomelo

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Citrus maxima (or Citrus grandis), (Common names: shaddockpomelo, pummelo, pommelo, or lusho fruit) is a crisp citrusfruit  native to South and Southeast Asia . It is usually pale green to yellow when ripe, with sweet white (or, more rarely, pink or red) flesh and very thick albedo (rind pith). It is the largest citrus fruit, 15–25 centimetres (5.9–9.8 in) in diameter, and usually weighing 1–2 kilograms (2.2–4.4 lb).

Watermelon

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Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus, family Cucurbitaceae ) is a vine-like (scrambler and trailer) flowering plant  originally from southern Africa . It is a large, sprawling annual plant with coarse, hairy pinnately-lobed leaves and white to yellow flowers. It is grown for its edible fruit, also known as a watermelon, which is a special kind of berry referred to by botanists as a pepo . The fruit has a smooth hard rind, usually green with dark green stripes or yellow spots, and a juicy, sweet interior flesh, usually deep red to pink, but sometimes orange, yellow, or white, with many seeds.

The plant has been cultivated in Egypt since at least the 2md ,millenium BC and by the 10th century AD had reached India and China. It later spread into southern Europe and on into the New World. Much research effort has been put into breeding disease-resistant varieties and into developing a seedless strain. Nowadays a large number of cultivars are available, many of them producing mature fruit within 100 days of planting the crop. The fruit is rich in vitamins A and C and can be eaten raw or cooked in a variety of ways.

Coconut

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The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family). It is the only accepted species in the genusCocos.The term coconut can refer to the entire coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which, botanically, is a drupe , not a nut. The spelling cocoanut is an archaic form of the word.The term is derived from 16th-century Portuguese and Spanish coco, meaning “head” or “skull”, from the three indentations on the coconut shell that resemble facial features.

Found throughout the tropic and subtropic area, the coconut is known for its great versatility as seen in the many uses of its different parts. Coconuts are part of the daily diets of many people. Coconuts are different from any other fruits because they contain a large quantity of “water” and when immature they are known as tender-nuts or jelly-nuts and may be harvested for drinking. When mature, they still contain some water and can be used as seednuts or processed to give oil from the kernel, charcoal from the hard shell and coir from the fibrous husk. The endosperm  is initially in its nuclear phase suspended within the coconut water. As development continues, cellular layers of endosperm deposit along the walls of the coconut, becoming the edible coconut “flesh”. When dried, the coconut flesh is called copra. The oil and milk derived from it are commonly used in cooking and frying; coconut oil is also widely used in soaps and cosmetics. The clear liquid coconut water within is potable. The husks and leaves can be used as material to make a variety of products for furnishing and decorating. It also has cultural and religious significance in many societies that use it .

Apple

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The apple tree (Malus domestica) is a deciduous tree in the rose family best known for its sweet, pomaceous fruit, the apple. It is cultivated worldwide as a fruit tree, and is the most widely grown species in the genus Malus . The tree originated in Central Asia, where its wild ancestor, Malus sieversii, is still found today. Apples have been grown for thousands of years in Asia and Europe, and were brought to North America by European colonists. Apples have religious and mythological significance in many cultures, including Norse, Greek and European Christian traditions.

Apple trees are large if grown from seed, but small if grafted onto roots (rootstock). There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples, resulting in a range of desired characteristics. Different cultivars are bred for various tastes and uses, including cooking, eating raw and cider production. Apples are generally propagated by grafting, although wild apples grow readily from seed. Trees and fruit are prone to a number of fimga; bacterial and pest problems, which can be controlled by a number of organic and non-organic means. In 2010, the fruit’s genome was decoded as part of research on disease control and selective breeding in apple production.

About 69 million tons of apples were grown worldwide in 2010, and China produced almost half of this total. The United States is the second-leading producer, with more than 6% of world production. Turkey is third, followed by Italy, India and Poland. Apples are often eaten raw, but can also be found in many prepared foods (especially desserts) and drinks. Many beneficial health effects are thought to result from eating apples; however, two forms of allergies are seen to various proteins found in the fruit.

Orange

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The orange (specifically, the sweet orange) is the fruit of the citrus species Citrus  sinensis in the family Rutaceae. The fruit of the Citrus sinensis is considered a sweet orange, whereas the fruit of the Citrus aurantium is considered a bitter orange. The orange is a hybrid, possibly between pomelo (Citrus maxima) and mandarin (Citrus reticulata), which has been cultivated since ancient times.

As of 1987, orange trees were found to be the most cultivted fruit tree in the world. Orange trees are widely grown in tropical and subtropical climates for their sweet fruit. The fruit of the orange tree can be eaten fresh, or processed for its juice or fragrant peel. As of 2012, sweet oranges accounted for approximately 70% of citrus production. In 2010, 68.3 million metric tons of oranges were grown worldwide, production being particularly prevalent in Brazil  and the U.S. states of California and Florida .

Lemon

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The lemon (Citrus × limon) is a small evergreen tree native to Asia. The tree’s ellipsoidal yellow fruit is used for culinary and non-culinary purposes throughout the world, primarily for its juice, though the pulp and rind (zest) are also used in cooking and baking. The juice of the lemon is about 5% to 6% citric acid, which gives lemons a sour taste. The distinctive sour taste of lemon juice makes it a key ingredient in drinks and foods such as lemonade.

Guava

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Guavas (singular guava)are common tropical fruits cultivated and enjoyed in many tropical and subtropical regions.Psidium guajava (common guava, lemon guava) is a small tree in the Myrtle family (Myrtaceae), native to Mexico, Central America, and northern South America . Although related species may also be called guavas, they actually belong to other genera, such as the “strawberry guava” Acca sellowiana.

Sapodilla

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Sapodilla or sapota (chikoo) is another popular delicious tropical fruit in line with mango, banana,and jackfruit. Its calorie-rich soft, easily digestible pulp composes of simple sugars like fructose and sucrose that when eaten replenishes energy and revitalizes the body instantly. Indeed, it is a vital source of vitamins, minerals and health-benefiting anti-oxidant, tannin.

Sapota is a tropical evergreen, fruit-bearing tree belongs to the family of Sapotaceae, in the genus: Manilkara. Scientific name: Manilkara zapota.

 

Wood apple

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The Wood Apple is a fruit bearing tree native to the Indian sub-continent – Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka. The Wood Apple is a hard round fruit with a sweet/sour fragrant pulp.

A hundred gm of fruit pulp contains 31 gm of carbohydrate and two gm of protein, which adds up to nearly 140 calories. The ripe fruit is rich in beta-carotene, a precursor of Vitamin A; it also contains significant quantities of the B vitamins thiamine and riboflavin, and small amounts of Vitamin C. Wood apple is rich in oxalic, malic, citric acid and a concentrated tannic acid. The leaves produce a volatile oil.

Aamla

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Aamla or Indian Gooseberry (Latin name: Emblica officinalis) is found extensively in India in the form of two varieties. One is hard, small in size and found in forests; while the other type is softer, bigger in size, more fleshy and is cultivated. Ancient Ayurveda text mentions that special properties of rejuvenation and revitalizing of the entire body systems lie in the fruit of Aamla.

Annonaceae

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Annonaceae, the custard apple family, is a family of flowering plants consisting of trees, shrubs, or rarely lianas .With 2106 accepted species and more than 130 genera, it is the largest family in Magnoliales. Several genera produce edible fruit, most notably Annona, Anonidium,Asimina,Rollinia,and Uvaria. Its type genus is Annona. The family is concentrated in the tropics, with few species found in temperate regions. About 900 species are Neotropical, 450 are Afrotropical, and the other species Indomalayan.

Compared to the species from the Neotropics, very little is known about many species from Indomalaya. Only a few attempts have been made for the phylogeny-based reclassification of the family, and those have been hampered by the Neotropic bias in the available information, with the most of the work having been done on genera and tribes.

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